Political socialization political socialization usually take place as individuals interact with groups, even if the group is small. A group is a collection of people interacting together on the basis of shared expectation about one another’s behaviour, as a result of interaction which will be physical all psychological, but the members in the group have a sense of belonging.
People learn about their culture, traditions, religions etc.
Groups Of Socialization
1. Primary group: This group consist a small number of people who interact over a relatively long of time, they have Direct intimate bases and emotional depth. Primary group are always small making it possible for members to interact in a highly personal face-to-face manner e.g family, School, peers, age groups.Family is one of the most important agent of socialization, especially if the parents educate their children on cultural, religious and political education.The family majorly influences the way a child views ethnic, religious Society.
2. Secondary group: This is a number of people who interact relatively on temporary basis, the members come together for some specific practical purpose such as, making a community decision, or attending conventions. The secondary group is limited but it is a face-to-face contact, and members interact with one another only in terms of specific rules, such as associations, business corporations, government Ministries, religious movements. This large groups may contain hundreds of primary groups all social networks.
3. Reference group: It is a group which people refers when making evaluations of themselves and their behaviours, a reference group set the standards by which other people judge their behaviour, appearance, values, ambitions, lifestyles. Britain and America are Nigeria’s political reference groups.
Agents of political socialization
1. Family: Family is the basic agent of socialization, this is where culture, traditions I transferred to the children. Family is the first stage of political socialization, it has been discovered that what children are being taught in the family stays with them until maturity and they also pass it on to their children. Most of the likes and dislikes of people over culture, traditions and believes comes from the family unit. Since the family determine what schools, religious organisation children how to attend, it affect the behaviour of the child.
2. Peer groups: Peer groups the basic agent of socialization, the term peer group a group of individuals that share similar characteristics among themselves, this characteristics can be organisational, educational, or age. After the family most children have peer groups and they learn from each other to increase their knowledge, all the members in a peer group came from families, and they have learn from their family, they share what they have learned among themselves.
3. The School: The school is one of the agent of socialization, the school is an institution for education, informing and training children.
4. Religious organisation: One of the way people socialize is true religious organisation, there are three major religions organisation in the world today, which are the Christians, Muslims and traditional worshipers. Through this religious organisation knowledge, believes, culture are being transmitted, and it will go a long way to determine the behaviour of individuals. Religious organisation as an agent of socialization is good if only it is not abused four negative influences, believes and cultures. But however religion is a major key and agent of socialization. We will talk about agent of socialization we mean the machinery or means that socialization is been achieved and Culture being transmitted from one generation to another. In this time of contemporary world, religion has been one of the major key player in socialization of individuals.
5 The Media: The Media provide instant coverage of political and social events, they also offers role models that people may otherwise never have access to, but can learn from through the media. Through the media children learn about lawyers, politicians, military and public officers. Also true media advertisement people learn about party programs, products and services. People also learn political orientation from the media, it doesn’t make them to interact in the environment, and to know the happenings around them. It has been discovered in the US, that when children are exposed to violence in the TV, they won’t become violent, but they will be victim of violence.
6. Political events and Experience: Socialization is a continuous process, it never really end, we are constantly being exposed to new event, new ideas, new experience, all of which can change our political outlook and orientation, this can be seen when there is economic depression. although some political events can come to give their personal experience e.g political corruption, people participating in political parties and also people being orientated about party manifesto.political event as an agent of socialization is so important because when the right people are in power the society would be in safety.this are all key agent of socialization in the society.